The Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5)

American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development

(Retrieved from

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Must meet criteria A, B, C, and D:

A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across contexts, not accounted for by general developmental delays, and manifest by all 3 of the following:

1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity; ranging from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back and forth conversation through reduced sharing of interests, emotions, and affect and response to total lack of initiation of social interaction,
2. Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction; ranging from poorly integrated- verbal and nonverbal communication, through abnormalities in eye contact and body-language, or deficits in understanding and use of nonverbal communication, to total lack of facial expression or gestures.
3. Deficits in developing and maintaining relationships, appropriate to developmental level (beyond those with caregivers); ranging from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit different social contexts through difficulties in sharing imaginative play and  in making friends  to an apparent absence of interest in people Continue reading


Risk Factors of Acute Behavioral Regression in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents with Autism

J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 May; 19(2): 100–108.

Copyright © 2010 Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry


During adolescence, some individuals with autism engage in severe disruptive behaviors, such as violence, agitation, tantrums, or self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to assess risk factors associated with very acute states and regression in adolescents with autism in an inpatient population.
Between 2001 and 2005, we reviewed the charts of all adolescents with autism (N=29, mean age=14.8 years, 79% male) hospitalized for severe disruptive behaviors in a psychiatric intensive care unit. We systematically collected data describing socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables (severity, presence of language, cognitive level), associated organic conditions, etiologic diagnosis of the episode, and treatments.
All patients exhibited severe autistic symptoms and intellectual disability, and two-thirds had no functional verbal language. Fifteen subjects exhibited epilepsy, including three cases in which epilepsy was unknown before the acute episode. For six (21%) of the subjects, uncontrolled seizures were considered the main cause of the disruptive behaviors. Other suspected risk factors associated with disruptive behavior disorders included adjustment disorder (N=7), lack of adequate therapeutic or educational management (N=6), depression (N=2), catatonia (N=2), and painful comorbid organic conditions (N=3).
Disruptive behaviors among adolescents with autism may stem from diverse risk factors, including environmental problems, comorbid acute psychiatric conditions, or somatic diseases such as epilepsy. The management of these behavioral changes requires a multidisciplinary functional approach.
Keywords: autism, adolescence, acute behavioral state, regression, intellectual disability Continue reading


by Untung Sudrajat

Ujian nasional dan tryout-tryout-nya hadir kembali menjadi horor dan penyiksaan anak-anak sekolah. Inilah keprihatinan tahunan yang tak berubah juga….Benar-benar iba saya mencermati anak-anak kelas 6 yang tampak amat keletihan dalam menempuh tryout jelang ujian nasional. Bayangkan anak-anak sekolah dasar berusia 11-13 tahun ini menjalani tryout 9 kali untuk 3 pelajaran. Alhasil, sebanyak 27 kali tryout harus mereka jalani! Rinciannya: 5 kali tryout hasil kerjasama dengan sebuah penerbit di Jakarta; 1 kali tryout tingkat provinsi; 1 kali tryout tingkat kotamadya; dan 2 kali tryout tingkat kecamatan).

Padahal, dalam waktu berdekatan mereka juga harus menempuh ujian praktik sebanyak 7 mata pelajaran. Sebentar kemudian mereka menjalani ujian akhir semester II (ulangan semesteran) yang nilainya untuk mengisi raport sebanyak 8 pelajaran. Lalu ada ujian sekolah (US) tertulis yang nilainya untuk pertimbangan dalam mengisi ijasah juga dalam 8 pelajaran. Continue reading

Must read…

Health & Family

A new study offers some good news for families with autism. Most children affected by the disorder do not have intellectual disabilities, the study finds, and even among the severely low-functioning, about 10% may improve dramatically over time, with some growing out of their diagnosis by their teens.

The study tracked nearly 7,000 autistic children born in California between 1992 and 2001. The group included most of the children who received an autism diagnosis in the state during that time period. The kids were followed from diagnosis to age 14 or the oldest age they had reached by the time the data collection was concluded.

The researchers found that 63% of the children did not have intellectual disabilities. Although autism is known to cause cognitive deficits in some children, it is also associated with certain enhanced intellectual abilities, and some affected children have extremely high IQs.

About one-third of the…

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Autism Spectrum Disorders

Facts About ASDs

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges.  People with ASDs handle information in their brain differently than other people.

ASDs are “spectrum disorders.”  That means ASDs affect each person in different ways, and can range from very mild to severe.  People with ASDs share some similar symptoms, such as problems with social interaction.  But there are differences in when the symptoms start, how severe they are, and the exact nature of the symptoms.

There are three different types of ASDs:

  • Autistic Disorder (also called “classic” autism)
    This is what most people think of when hearing the word “autism.”  People with autistic disorder usually have significant language delays, social and communication challenges, and unusual behaviors and interests. Many people with autistic disorder also have intellectual disability.
  • Asperger Syndrome
    People with Asperger syndrome usually have some milder symptoms of autistic disorder.  They might have social challenges and unusual behaviors and interests.  However, they typically do not have problems with language or intellectual disability.
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS; also called “atypical autism”)
    People who meet some of the criteria for autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome, but not all, may be diagnosed with PDD-NOS. People with PDD-NOS usually have fewer and milder symptoms than those with autistic disorder.  The symptoms might cause only social and communication challenges.

Signs and Symptoms Continue reading